Zika Virus (Rash)

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Extremely rare
Fewer than 1,000 US cases per year
The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention has issued an alert for travel to areas where Zika virus is spreading.

  • Requires medical diagnosis
  • Symptoms: A flat, pink and red rash on the skin, sometimes covered with small bumps
  • Color: Typically pink or red
  • Location: Generally large areas of the body such as the head, neck, trunk, and extremities, including the palms and soles.
  • Treatment: No specific antiviral treatment or vaccination available; to relieve symptoms, you get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines
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Maculopapular rash can be a telltale sign of Zika. Other initial signs of Zika infection include mild fever, fatigue, headache, bloodshot eyes, joint pain and muscle pain. However, there may not be any visible symptoms.

Zika virus infection is an emerging infectious disease. It is caused by the bite of an infected Aedes mosquito – Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.

Before 2007, viral circulation and a few outbreaks were documented in tropical Africa and in some areas in Southeast Asia. Today, there are travel-related cases of Zika infection in Florida, Arkansas, California, Virginia, Minnesota, Illinois, New Jersey, Texas, and New York. However, severe disease requiring hospitalization is uncommon and case fatality is low.

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Symptoms of Zika Virus (Rash)

Maculopapular rash is a compound word composed of the words “macule” and “papule.” A macule is a flat blemish or discoloration that measures less than 1 cm. A papule is as elevated lesion measuring less than 1 cm.

One form of maculopapular rash is a flat, pink and red rash on the skin covered with small bumps. Another form is numerous smooth rashes. It often starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash can diffuse over the head, neck, trunk, and extremities, including the palms and soles.

In the case of Zika, it often lasts for a week.

What can I do?

How to prevent mosquito bites:

  • Use Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-registered insect repellents in accordance with the instructions indicated on the product label
  • Remove or stay away from mosquito breeding sites, like containers with standing water.
  • Stay in places with air conditioning and window and door screens to keep mosquitoes outside

If you have symptoms of a Zika infection, make sure to:

  • Drink fluids to prevent dehydration
  • Take medicine such as acetaminophen (Tylenol®) or paracetamol to reduce fever and pain
  • Protect yourself from further mosquito exposure during the first few days of illness to prevent further transmission to other mosquitoes and thus human beings
  • Talk to your healthcare provider before taking additional medication, if you are taking medicine for another medical condition
  • Avoid aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) until the possibility dengue can be ruled out.

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If you are pregnant:

  • Avoid travel to an area with Zika
  • Use a condom every time if the male partner has or is at risk for Zika virus infection
  • Talk to your healthcare provider about your travel if you have recently traveled to an area with Zika, even if you don’t feel sick
  • Talk to your healthcare provider if you develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes during their trip or within 2 weeks after traveling to an area where Zika has been reported
  • Prevent mosquito bites

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Should I seek medical care?

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention recently concluded that Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and other severe fetal brain defects. See your doctor or other healthcare provider if you are pregnant and develop a fever, rash, joint pain, or red eyes within 2 weeks after traveling to a place where Zika has been reported. Be sure to tell your doctor or other healthcare provider where you traveled.

If you suspect you are infected with Zika virus, you should also be evaluated and managed for possible dengue or chikungunya virus infection, because of similar geographic distribution and symptoms.

Treatment for Zika Virus (Rash)

There are no specific antiviral treatment or vaccination available for Zika virus. If you are sick with Zika virus, you should get plenty of rest, drink enough fluids, and treat pain and fever with common medicines. If symptoms worsen, you should seek medical care and advice.

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Source:

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Clinical Evaluation & Disease. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/hc-providers/clinicalevaluation.html

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Pregnant Women: How to Protect Yourself. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/zika/pregnancy/protect-yourself.html

Centers of Disease Control and Prevention. Zika Travel Information. Available at: http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/zika-travel-information

Derrington, Sarah M. et al. “Mucocutaneous Findings And Course In An Adult With Zika Virus Infection”. JAMA Dermatol 152.6 (2016): 691. Web. Available at: http://archderm.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2521442

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Zika virus infection – Factsheet for health professionals. Available at: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/healthtopics/zika_virus_infection/factsheet-health-professionals/Pages/factsheet_health_professionals.aspx

Government of Canada. Symptoms of Zika virus disease. Available at: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/diseases-conditions-maladies-affections/disease-maladie/zika-virus/symptoms-symptomes-eng.php?id=symptoms

Madeleine Johnson. Zika Facts to Calm and Terrify You. Slate. Available at: http://www.slate.com/articles/health_and_science/medical_examiner/2016/01/zika_facts_its_symptoms_origin_and_dangers.html

Medical Hub. Maculopapular Rash. Available at: http://emedicalhub.com/maculopapular-rash/

Pan American Health Organization. Zika virus infection and Zika fever: Frequently asked questions. Available at: http://www.paho.org/hq/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=9183:2015-preguntas-frecuentes-virus-fiebre-zika&Itemid=41711&lang=en

World Health Organization. Zika virus. Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/zika/en/

 

Image Source:

Derrington, Sarah M. et al. “Mucocutaneous Findings And Course In An Adult With Zika Virus Infection”. JAMA Dermatol 152.6 (2016): 691. Web. Available at: http://archderm.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=2521442

 

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