Acne help can be well suited using Artificial Intelligence (AI)
With artificial intelligence (AI), computer algorithms will in the future be able to know what type of acne you have, by just uploading an image and get it analyzed. It will typically take under a second to know what form of acne you have that can help guide you to the right treatment that you can use when you see your dermatologist in person.
Below you can read about the different forms of acne and its treatments.
Is found in locations of the body with the most well-developed sebaceous oil glands, such as on the face and upper chest and back. It is characterized by closed comedones (whiteheads) and open comedones (blackheads). Closed comedones (whiteheads) are generally small (~1mm), skin-colored bumps with no associated redness. Open comedones (blackheads) are dome-shaped papule with an obvious dilated pore filled with a core of sloughed skin cells. Pigment and oxidation of lipids within this core may explain the black color. Treatments for comedonal acne typically include creams and face washes contains benzoyl peroxide and/or salicylic acid, as well as as retinoid cream (i.e tretinoin).
Is characterized by the presence of inflammatory red papules, pustules, as well as open and closed comedones. It is a bit more severe than isolated, non-inflammatory comedonal acne, and often requires systemic antibiotics, in addition to the topical treatments mentioned above, to get the inflammatory papules under good control.
Acne nodulocystic (inflammatory)
Occurs on the face, chest, back, and neck. It starts out as a tiny closed comedones (whitehead), but then develops into an inflamed red bump, pustule, nodule, or cyst. The lesions of inflammatory acne can be painful and deep. Left untreated all subtypes of acne have the potential for scarring, however because this subtype has the greatest risk of scarring without treatment. This type of acne often requires both prescription creams and prescription systemic medications to control. Medications commonly prescribed to treat inflammatory acne include oral and topical antibiotics, topical retinoids, and the systemic retinoid isotretinoin (accutane).
Is an unusually severe form of nodulocystic acne, often with an abrupt onset. It is characterized by burrowing and interconnecting abscesses and irregular shaped scars. The comedones often occur in a group of 2 or 3, and there are cysts containing foul-smelling material that returns after drainage. The nodules are usually found on the chest, the shoulders, the back, the buttocks, the upper arms, the thighs, and the face.
Is the most severe form of acne and is characterized by the abrupt development of nodules and draining acne lesions in association with systemics symptoms. This uncommon variant primarily affects boys 13–16 years of age. There is typically existing mild to moderate acne prior to the onset of acne fulminans, when numerous micro comedones suddenly erupt and become markedly inflamed. There is rapid coalescence of the lesions into painful, oozing, friable plaques with bloody crusts. The face, neck, chest, back and arms are all affected. Lesions tend to ulcerate and can lead to significant scarring.
Hormonal acne Q&A video, Dr Dray
Post-adolescent acne (sometimes referred to as hormonal acne)
Is acne that persists beyond 25 years of age. It is most common in women, tends to flare during the week prior to menstruation, and typically features tender, deep-seated red bumps on the lower third of the face, jawline and neck. Approximately one-third of affected women have other dermatologic findings, such as facial hair growth and scalp hair loss. Hormonal therapies such as birth control pills, as well as blood pressure medication called spironolactone, are often helpful in the treatment of this type of acne.
Acne excoriée des jeunes filled
Occurs primarily in young women. Typical comedones and inflammatory papules are scratched and manipulated, leaving crusted, linear sores that may scar. Individuals with an anxiety disorder, obsessive–compulsive disorder or personality disorder are particularly at risk. Antidepressants or psychotherapy may be indicated and helpful in those afflicted.
May result from any subtype of acne, but most commonly occur as a result of untreated or under treated subtypes of inflammatory acne. Acne scars can be further sub-classified based on their appearance into ice pick, boxcar, and rolling scars. These scars are, for the most part, permanent. They can be improved, somewhat, with long term use of a retinoid cream (i.e. tretinoin), as well as a variety of dermatologic procedures. Such procedures include laser resurfacing, dermabrasion, deep chemical peels, subcision, and cosmetic filler injections for discrete depressed scars.
Topical benzoyl peroxide for acne. Yang Z, et al Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Mar 16;3:CD011154.
A cross-sectional, multi-center study on treatment of facial acne scars with low-energy double-pass 1450-nm diode laser. Rathod D et al. Dermatol Ther. 2020 Mar 24:e13326. doi: 10.1111/dth.13326. [Epub ahead of print]
Comparison of guidelines and consensus articles on the management of patients with acne with oral isotretinoin. Dessinioti et al. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2020 Apr 11. doi: 10.1111/jdv.16430. [Epub ahead of print]
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Specialist doctor from the University Hospital in Gothenburg, alumnus UC Berkeley. My doctoral dissertation is about Digital Health and I have published 5 scientific articles in teledermatology and artificial intelligence.